Why You Should Be Aware of Reverse (High to Low) Altitude Sickness?
Have you ever felt ill when returning to sea level from an area of high altitude?
This may also occur after indulging in strenuous activities such as mountain climbing. When you feel like you lack sufficient oxygen in such environments, this is associated with a condition known as Altitude Sickness.
However, in peculiar situations, the reverse may occur and this is referred to as Reverse Altitude Sickness.
When you move from a high altitude to a low altitude, your blood pressure is supposed to normalize. The oxygen in your body should also be evenly distributed. Sometimes, like clockwork, the body refuses to respond to environmental changes, especially if you have been at a high altitude for a long time.
When some people transition to an area with lower altitude, they have the same Altitude Sickness symptoms due to increasing blood pressure.
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What is Reverse (high to low) Altitude Sickness?
As a human being, you are prone to many health conditions. You may expect people who have grown up in high altitude areas to feel better physically when they descend to sea level but this is not the case with everyone.
Reverse (high to low) Altitude Sickness is a long-existing condition that results from changes in altitude and saturation of oxygen in the atmosphere.
This condition causes symptoms such as headaches (in severe cases migraines), loss of appetite and insomnia.
If you are used to being in higher altitudes and transitioning quickly to places of lower altitude, then you are bound to experience Reverse Altitude Sickness.
For instance, if you have been living near the peak of a mountain, it only makes sense for you to be comfortable at higher altitudes.
A change of environment will take a lot of getting used to. Thus, your body will not function normally.
The beginning of Reverse Altitude Sickness and Its Causes
Reverse Altitude Sickness is caused by the thinning of blood and lack of oxygen in the body.
When you are used to high altitudes, and you go lower than usual, your body does not get enough oxygen and you consequently you begin to breathe faster than usual.
This spikes up your blood pressure. The sickness begins when you are close to at 14,000 feet of elevation and you are descending faster without giving your body enough time to rest.
This results in the following symptoms:
- Shortness of breath
- Frequent urination
These symptoms occur due to the fact that your body is struggling to adapt to a low altitude.
Reverse Altitude Sickness does not occur in everyone, in fact, it only tends to recur in those who have a previous history of the sickness.
When the symptoms are not serious, you are likely to experience mild symptoms.
However, in severe cases, Reverse (high to low) Altitude sickness is referred to as Low Altitude Cerebral Edema. This is Altitude Sickness in its extremity and the following symptoms are exhibited:
- Extreme fatigue
- Lack of proper breathing
- Chest tightness and/or fullness
- Rattling and gurgling sounds when breathing
- Heavy frothy coughs
- Gray/blue lips and fingernails
Who is Prone to Reverse Altitude Sickness?
The type of Reverse Altitude Sickness varies from person to person.
If you travel to a latitude of below 2500m, you may be at the risk of suffering from the sickness as your body may fail to respond in the right way.
However, the symptoms are not evident unless you consistently remain at that specific latitude for a long time.
Unfortunately, Reverse Altitude Sickness is not predictable and it is hard to determine who will be affected.
If you have had a history of the condition in the past without getting treatment, it may be aggravated even faster the next time you are in a low latitude environment.
On lower altitude, you are always at higher risk of developing the condition because you descend faster.
It is important to understand that this does not occur in everyone. These are those who feel perfectly fine regardless of the environment that they are in.
Older people tend to be less affected by this condition. This may be because they already understand the concept of traveling to low-latitude environments.
Is Altitude Sickness Dangerous?
As any other condition, Reverse Altitude Sickness is dangerous, especially in its severe form.
When the body faces a lack of oxygen and increase in blood pressure, fluid may leak through the blood vessels and into the brain and this may result in swelling.
If the condition is left untreated, it may cause death. Therefore, when the symptoms are experienced, the patient should be ascended by 2,000 feet immediately.
Patients may also develop Cyanosis and heaviness in breathing, which makes them feel exhausted and weak. This also results in death.
Is Reverse (high to low) Altitude Sickness Preventable?
The ultimate way to prevent this condition is by giving your body time to adjust. It is important to pace yourself well in order to ensure that you do not overwork or over-excite your body.
Gradual changes often reduce the chances of developing any form of Altitude Sickness. We are all different, therefore, we adapt to the environment at different rates.
The next time you are in a sea level environment, put these guidelines to practice to ensure that you do not get affected by the change in altitude:
- Stay Hydrated
You should always keep yourself hydrated with 4 to 6 liters of water in a day. It is not advisable to smoke or consume alcohol when transitioning from high altitude places.
- Get Enough Sleep
As sleep is an important part of the journey, do not descend below 300 meters at night to ensure that your body is well-rested. However, this only applies to a latitude of below 3,000 meters.
- Stick To a Low-Calorie Diet
Low-calorie diets are advised when going to a low latitude environment. This is because they will give you the energy that you need to adjust to the environment.
- Stay at Sea Level
If you have recurring Reverse Altitude Sickness, always learn to stay at the sea level environment until the symptoms go away completely. However, if they worsen, you may take tranquilizers or sleeping pills.
When To Call the Doctor?
If your symptoms are persistent, it is important to consult your doctor before visiting a low latitude environment. Preventive drugs such as Acetazolamide and Dexamethasone assist keeping the condition in check and stabilizing your flow patterns, especially in the lungs.
Before venturing into any adventure, you should be conversant with the right information about Reverse Altitude Sickness. Acclimatize your body to the changing latitude. Always descend gradually in order to give yourself enough time to adjust.
Treatment of reverse altitude sickness
When traveling to a low altitude location, the basic rule of thumb is to move to a higher altitude if you start experiencing any of the Altitude Sickness symptoms.
Otherwise, the lower you go, the more fatal they can be.
Getting a good amount of rest is an important part of the treatment. Combining this with Acetazolamide drug will help you find balance and better-breathing.
Nifedipine and Dexamethasone are drugs that decrease brain swelling which may result due to severe symptoms.
When you are at a lower latitude for the first time, supplemental oxygen is also important. If the symptoms worsen, you should always call a doctor to attend to you immediately.
Whether normal or reversed, Altitude sickness is a treatable condition.
There are many people who have died because of neglecting it. However, you do not have to live your life in fear of high and low altitudes, you can always take control at all times.
What Pills Are Used To Curb The Condition?
Reverse Altitude Condition is not irrevesible. The following pills work against the condition and get you back to normal in the shortest time:
- Acetazolamide corrects all your breathing problems and ensures that oxygen is evenly distributed throughout your body. Thisdrug has been known to save many lives in severe breathing problems.
- Dexamethasone reduces the swelling of the brain when Reverse Altitude Sickness causes edema.
- For mild headaches, Aspirin will offer relief.
Patients may also use recommended types of blood pressure medicines and lung inhalers. This can only be recommended by a certified physician.
In case you have certain medical conditions or are under a different set of medication, always consult to ensure that the Altitude Sickness pills are safe to consume.
Patients with lung or heart disease need constant monitoring because the combination of these diseases with elevated blood pressure or lack of oygen may be fatal.
Most people are able to bounce back from an acute case of Reversible Altitude Sickness. When they get back to higher altitude environments, the symptoms often subside in a short time.
If you are not sure about your symptoms or the condition in general, you should speak to a doctor.
If you give your body sufficient time, red blood cells will be produced when you spend a lot of time at sea level and this will compensate for your blood thinning and lack of oxygen anytime you visit these atmospheres.